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"Arab Archery"
An Arabic manuscript of about A.D. 1500 “Book on the Excellence of the Bow and Arrow” and the Description thereof.
Translated by N.A. Faris and R.P. Elmer, 1945.

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  1. In the Name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate
  2. On holy war and the service of archery therein
  3. On the excellence of the arab bow, its use, adoption, the reward of the maker of its arrows, its target, urging the mastery of its technique, the offense of him who discards it after he has learned its use, and the first to use and the first to make it
  4. On the different kinds of bows and the most desirable of them
  5. On the names and nomenclatures of the arab bows and their different parts
  6. On the master archers
  7. On the principles of loosing and the different schools therein
  8. Things the archer should know
  9. How to determine the cast of the bow, its weight, and the limit of the archer's strength in drawing
  10. On testing the bow before bracing
  11. On bracing, which is the same as stringing
  12. On the curvature of the bow after bracing
  13. On unstringing
  14. On picking up the bow and arrow preparatory to shooting and the manner of shooting
  15. On the different draws and the manner of locking the thumb and the index finger on the string, and on the rules of arranging the index finger upon the thumb
  16. On how to hold the grip of the bow with the left hand
  17. On the clench
  18. On drawing and its limits
  19. On aiming, which is the same as pointing at the target
  20. On the loose or release
  21. On the passage of the arrow over the left hand
  22. On blisters and wounds on the index finger of the right hand caused by stringing, clenching, drawing and loosing, together with the remedies thereof
  23. On the blow of the string on the archer's right thumb, which causes it to turn black and blue on the inside and beneath the nail and sometimes results in breaking the nail; as well as on the blistering and bruising of the left thumb at the time of shooting, together with the remedies thereof
  24. On the blow of the string on the forearm of the archer and the remedy thereof
  25. On the blow of the string on the chin of the archer, or on his ear, and the remedies thereof
  26. When the tip of the bow hits the ground at the moment of loosing, and the remedy thereof
  27. When the nock of the arrow breaks and the remedy thereof
  28. On causing the arrow to move on itself, or wag, in its flight
  29. On the management of the arrow when shooting against the wind, et cetera, and on trying not to shoot it when a break is found after it has been fully drawn
  30. On how near or how far the target should be
  31. On standing and sitting for aiming
  32. On the variations in the length and construction of the Arab Bow
  33. On strings; how to make them and how to form their eyes
  34. On the length and shortness of the string
  35. On the thinness and thickness of the string and on how to choose the correct and appropriate size
  36. On the weight of the string in relation to the weight of the bow
  37. On the names of the various kinds of arrows and their different parts; and on the length of each kind, the desirable wood from which to make it, and the manner of its paring
  38. On arrowheads; the different kinds, their various uses, how to fix them on the shaft; and the manner of cutting arrow-nocks
  39. On feathers and fletching
  40. On the weight of arrows, arrow heads, and feathers
  41. On sundry points not yet mentioned concerning the competition bow, the description of its arrow, and the manner of its use, together with some of the tricks employed in competitions
  42. On thumb-tips and the various kinds thereof
  43. On shooting with the ḥusbān, dawdan, and ‘uṣfūri arrows through the hollow of a guide
  44. On stunt shooting
  45. Targets and target practice
  46. Quivers, belt, arrow picker, file
  47. Inscriptions on bows, arrows, and quivers
        1. Reinforced Bows
        2. Length of the Composite Bow
        3. The Composite Bow
        4. Bracing
        5. The Male Feather
        6. The Cubit
        7. Weights of Bows
        8. Sighting and Range
        9. Horns Used in Bows
        10. Knots
        11.The Dirham and its Equivalents
        12. Lengths of Arrows
        13. Relative Weights
        14. The majra or Arrow Guide
        15. The meaning of fard and qīrāt
        16. The Returning Arrow
        17. Featherless Arrows

        Arabic finger reckoning, The Digits
        Arabic finger reckoning, The Tens
        Turkish bow and siper
        Demonstrating the lock called the "sixty three"
        The six different draws or "locks" according to the arabic system of Finger reckoning

        Genuine Bowstring Knot in a Chinese String
        Various knots

        Chinese Bows from Peking and Arrows from Canton
        Korean, Sind and Light Turkish Bow

Translator and Annotator