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1 Roberts. Eng. Bowman
2 See chap. xx, verse 24. "He shall flee from the Iron Weapon, and the bow of steel shall strike him through."
3 The Horns of the Gortynian Goat are often mentioned as bows.
4 Steel has been lately attempted for the long bow, but without success, for if made strong enough to insure a quick cast, it was found to be far beyond the power of man to draw it without mechanical aid: and when otherwise, it proved extremely sluggish in the cast.
5 Strings made of Silk, are necessarily thicker than those manufactured of hemp — and therefore are not so well calculated for quick casting.
6 The Cubit was a foot and a half of our measure. The ancient Egyptian cubit was (according to Mr. Graves) one foot nine inches and three quarters of our measure.
7 See 2nd book of Julius Caesar's Commentaries.
8 According to Grose, Archery, which during the Reign of Edward the 3rd, was raised to the highest pitch of excellence that most probably it ever attained, was kept up 'till about the year 1643, when it gradually gave way to the use of fire-arms.
9 Spanish and Flemish yew was also much esteemed for Bows, and Stow says "that the People of Castile, purposely destroyed their woods, and provided by Law that no such wood should be preserved. The best yew, however, for bows appears unquestionably to have been imported from Venice. In the Reign of Richard III. merchants trading to places from whence bow-staves were commonly brought, were obliged to import four bow-staves for every ton of Malmsey or Tyre wine, under a penalty of 13s. 4d. and in order to encourage the Importation, those of six feet and a half long or more, were excused payment of duty.
10 "Fistmele" meant handful.
11 Henry VIII. passed acts relative to Archery, and amongst the several rules and regulations made for the support of the art, was one that says, " none under 24 years of age, might shoot any standing mark except it was for a rover, and then he was to change his mark at every shot, under the penalty of four-pence for every shot made contrary, &c. Also, that no person above the age of 24 should shoot at any mark that was not above eleven score yards distant, under pain of forfeiting for every shot 6s..8d.
12 The Belly part of a backed bow, is generally in two pieces united in the centre, but the wood with which they are backed must be one entire piece, from Nock to Nock.
13 The manufacturing of these bows, requires great attention. Mr. Waring of London has brought bows of this description to a high perfection. The backed ones which consist only of one or two pieces of wood for the belly, and the second or third or whole piece for the back, are probably sufficiently hazardous, considering the un­certainty and moisture of the English climate, without increasing the chance of sepa­ration and fracture by the addition of two more pieces glued together—Every backing is necessarily attended with much risk and trouble. The fixing of the several parts together, is done in frames, which are generally reflexed, without which, good backing cannot be accomplished.—Hence the necessity of employing a good Bowyer.
14 Genesis xxviii, 3, 4.
15 1 Samuel xxxi, 3.
16 Iliad book iv, line 152.
17 Iliad book xiii, line 891.
18In Livy, we read that the Cretan archers completely routed the army of Antiochus, and turned his cavalry into flight “by a storm of arrows."
19 Lib. 7, c. 15. See also Roberts's English Bowman.
20 Herodian makes particular mention of the "unerring hand" of Commodus. Lib. I—15.
21 Or Loxley in Nottinghamshire. See " Ritson's Robin Hood."
22 It is recorded, that on this occasion, Robin Hood was dressed in Scarlet, and his men in Green, " Lincoln Green," we presume according to " Ritson," and that they all wore black hats and white feathers.
23 Afterwards Richard I, King of England :—he was seduced by the King of France. See J. P. Andrews Great Brit, and Europe, page 186.
24 See Hargrove's Anecdotes.
25 A phrase made use of by Dr. Fuller. See " Ritson's Robin Hood," page 16, ill Notes and Illustrations.
26 Admitting this interesting Anecdote to be true, we must conclude that Robin Hood shot his arrows, before his vein was opened.
27 See Ritson's " Robin Hood," vol. 2. p. 186.
28 This Norman Inscription shews its Antiquity—Robin Hood's Ancestors were Normans, and possessed the Lordship of Thyme in Lincolnshire. There is a Market Town in that County called Stanton.
29 See Roberts's English Bowman.
30 In the 6th. year of this Monarch's reign, 1160, the renowned Robin Hood was born.
31 See Lord Littleton, vol. 2. b. 2, p. 157.
32 "Men at Arms" were Cavalry clad in armour; sometimes called by Froissart "Gens D'Armes." at other times "Lances" from the Spears or Lances they often carried. These soldiers fought both on horseback and on foot.
33 "Giraldus Cambrensis" a cotemporary of Henry II.
34 The bows of the Welsh, according to Giraldus, were made of Yew, and were of prodigious power.
35 Cap 59—and quoted by Roberts;—who says; " It is to be observed that our historians seldom use the term archer, when they mean a Cross-bow-man."
36 July 29th.—On this fatal day, about twenty thousand Scots were slain.
37 See Andrews's Great Britain and Europe.
38 Andrews's Great Britain and Europe.
39 Andrews's Great Britain and Europe.
40 So called by Paulus Jovius, the celebrated Biographer of illustrious Men. See Roberts's English Bowman, page 14.
41 See J. P. Andrews's, Great Britain and Europe. .(In the book, this reference is missing in the text. It has been added by the editor of the digital version based on deduction from the text)
42 It is a singular fact, that most of our historians (following Mezeray, the French Chronicler) have remarked, that at this famous battle, the strings of the Genoese cross-bows were so much relaxed by rain, as to have been of little service. Some writers do not notice this disadvantage on the part of the cross-bow men, but only the superior effect of the English Long-bow. Muratori attributes the deficiency of the Genoese force, to the state of the ground, which was so soft, that when the cross-bow men attempted to put one foot in the stirrup of the cross-bow, in order to charge it, the other slipped from under them.
43 The ancient order of reducing archers into form, was into hearses, i. e. broad in front, and narrow in flank.
" These hearses of archers were placed either before the front of the armed footmen, or else in wings upon the corners of battalions, and sometimes both in front and wings."' Sir J. Smith.
44 See Sir John Smith.
45 J Stow relates the fact, that the English, under the Earls of Norwich, Salisbury, and Suffolk, "with their wearied batailles, joined the Prince after having supplied the exhausted Quivers of their archers with arrows drawn from their dead and dying ene­mies."
46 Roberts.
47 See Pinkerton's History of Scotland.
48 Speed's Annals, p.. 328.—It is recorded, that in this desperate conflict between the English and Scots, " the Men at Arms did not strike a stroke, or were not called much into action ; they were little more than mere spectators of the valour and vic­tory of the archers."
49 Henry's History, vol. 5, page 403.
50 This Anecdote appears to have been perpetuated by an engraving in Strutt's Horda Angel-Cynnan. See also Roberts's Eng. Bowman, p. 45.
51 Northumberland not thinking his services properly rewarded, and disgusted at not having been permitted to ransom his Scottish Captives, amongst whom was the Earl Douglas, set them at liberty, and joined his forces to those of the Scots, against his Sovereign. See P. Andrews's Gt. Britain, &c.
52 See J. P. Andrews's Gt. Britain and Europe, p. 20.—Henry V.
53 In Andrews's History, the Constable's name is written " D'Albret."
54 This first discharge of arrows, killed and wounded, two thousand four hundred men.
55 See Sir John Smith's discourse on Weapons. This expression respecting the appearance of arrows, is by no means hyperbolical. Historians of all ages have made similar obervations on their flights. So also many Poets.

"_______________And flang out such a flight,
Of shafts, as well near seem'd t' eclipse the welcome light,
And with the shots came shafts, like stormy showers of Hail."
56 The English Archers wore by their sides, battle-axes, small swords, and daggers. See Goodwin's History, Henry V, page 07.
57 Besides the Dukes of Orleans, Brabant, Nevers, and Bourbon, the Marshall Boucicault. the Counts D'Eu Vindome, Richemont, and Harcourt, with 7,000 barons, knights, and gentlemen, were of the prisoners taken.
58 "Arbalister” or Cross-bowman.
59 A Stuffer of Bacinets,—one whose business it was to make and repair the pad­ded lining of Helmets, &c. Bacinet is the light open helmet, generally worn at that period by the English Infantry.
60 See Roberts's Eng. Bowman, 51
61 Mounted archers were called Hobilers.
62 This sanguinary Ruffian. (who was on the side of the Lancastrians) murdered the Infant Rutland, whom though but twelve years old, he slew in cool blood, in spite of the earnest prayers of a Priest his tutor.
63 Henry Jenkins believed he might be about 12 years of age at the time of the battle of Flowden Field, when he was sent to Northalerton with a horse load of arrows, which a bigger boy had the charge of from thence to the army under the Earl of Surry.
64 Henry, the thirteenth Lord Clifford, on account of the hatred, the House of York, bore to his family, was concealed in the disguise of a shepherd, from seven years old, till he arrived at his thirty-second year, when in the first Parliament of Henry VII, he was restored to blood and honor, to all his Baronies, Lands, and Castles. He died 1523.
65 On the rebuilding of which it was called, and ever since has retained, the name of " Newtown."
66 Since called "Dead-man's Lane."
67 This achievement, and other events glorious and honourable to the Islanders, have induced the present Society of Archers in the Isle of Wight, to call themselves " The Carisbrooke Archers."
68 Lord Herbert tells us that of the ten thousand Men sent against France, 2,000 were archers.—
69 See Roberts's English bowman. p. 65.
70 In 1339, 1346, 1355, 1359, 1415, 1417, 1421, 1475, 1513, 1544.
71 Daniel's History of the Civil Wars.
72 This maule was for the purpose of despatching the wounded, (most probably those only who were mortally wounded.) These instruments of butchery, were used as late as the time of Louis XII. who died in 1524.
73 See Mason's " Considerations of the reasons that exist for reviving the use of the Long-bow, with the Pike." Published by Egerton, Whitehall, 1798.
N.B.—This excellent little work, might prove a complete " Drill Sergeant" to a corps of archers!
74 The English archers would frequently discharge their flights of arrows at the enemy, at fifteen and sixteen score yards distance, particularly at the approach of large bodies of horse or on the enemy's infantry coming down in close columns.
75 • A whole suit of armour is more easily worn, then a heavy breast plate alone, as the weight of the former is equalized. A girl carrying a single pail of water, performs her office with more fatigue, than if she carried the like weight in each hand.
76 Had Sir John Smith, who was so great a soldier, and who had gathered so much experience in warfare which fell to his lot, lived to have witnessed the perfection to which the rifle has been brought, he would not probably have classed or included such an instrument with the common musquet of the time of Henry VIII.
77 Clement Edmunds, wrote about the close of the 17th century.
78 Sir John Haywood remarks, that the eye in all battles, is first overcome.(In the book, this reference is missing in the text. It has been added by the editor of the digital version based on deduction from the text)
79 Gilbert, Vol. 1, page 157—See Instructions for the drill, as ordered for his Majesty's Forces By J. Russell, Brevet Captain, &c. 2nd edition, 1799.
80Roberts's English Bow-man, page 71.
81 Arrows charged with fire, and adhering to men and horses, (which, by a pamph­let in the British Museum, called, " A New Invention for shooting Fire Shalt- in the Long-Bow, 1698," appears to have been the case in former times,) may readily be conceived to be productive of immediate disorder, amongst the Enemy. The service also of barbed arrows charged with fire, is in firing combustible places, also the enemy's tents, sails of ships, &c. and in molesting the cannoniers, particularly by night, the archers having of course previously ascertained the distances, all which is peculiarly adapted for the service of Archery in general.
82 See Mosely on Archery.
83 In walking; fifty times from target to target, distant 100 yards, an archer goes over a space of ground nearly equal to three Miles.
84 The practice of archery appears to be rapidly increasing, and there is hardly a county in England without one archery society or more than one belonging to it : and in which are generally to be found Ladies of the first rank and fashion, whose appearance on the target grounds renders the same at all times particularly lively, and interesting.
85 A backed bow is generally a little reflexed. The bow being thus formed, may deceive, and induce a beginner to imagine, that it is to be bent the way it appears to be inclined, whereas, the proper bending of the bow will be found to be quite the contrary.
86 Roberts's "English Bow-man."
87 The Reader is here referred to the first part of this work, under the head of " Improvement of the Bow from its first Invention," for some observations on the value of foreign yew, as a bow wood, &c.
88 The lightest woods possess generally the quickest cast.
89 The belly part of a lance-wood bow, is often dyed of a darkish yellow.
90 Mr. Ainsworth of Walton le Dale, near Preston, Bow Maker and Fletcher, makes beautiful and most excellent arrows, and which he covers with thin lacker or varnish. Turkish arrows are often made of deal.
91 Arrows if made quite straight would not have substance enough in the chest to stand well in a strong English long-bow.
92 Mr. Waring makes his arrows, (for men's bows,) twenty-seven inches in length, exclusive of the pile.
93 Pile appears to be derived from the latin word pila, a ball, and was applied to arrow heads belonging to those people who lived within the royal forests in the time of Henry VII, as they were not allowed to shoot with arrows that were not rounded, or balled at the heads, on account of the game.—Since this period, the term pile has been indiscriminately given to all sorts of arrow heads.
94 The Flemish arrows are at this day tipt with horn, as their laws prohibit arrows being headed with iron or steel.
95 The tempering of steel piles for arrows, should be regulated according to the use designed for them. If for piercing wood, the steel must be made to what is called the "cutting temper" that is of a pale straw color. If for piercing metal, the steel must be tempered of a much higher color, from which additional heat, it becomes softer, and therefore better adapted for the end proposed. But, for common purposes, the temper of the steel may be managed between these two extremes.
96 These relics are now in the possession of Mr. John Dennett, of Newport, in Carisbrooke road. The drawings for the plate were made from the originals.
97 This is supposing the archer to be a right handed person.
98 The acts of drawing, holding, and loosing, should be performed as in one move­ment, so that the archer in taking aim, should not appear to stop or hesitate until the loose be given to his arrow.
99 This alludes to the actions of the Romish Priests in public benedictions; and the passage may explain a very obscure phrase in Spencer, who calls waving the sword in circles, blessing the sword.
100 Thrashed straw is preferable to unthrashed straw, as it makes, in the first place, a firmer boss, and in the next, cannot shrink from frequent piercing in the way that the latter naturally would.
101 It was a custom of ancient standing and merriment, that a horn spoon should be worn, during the shooting, by whoever last shot his arrow into the petticoat, or "spoon”'
102 See plate 6.
103 An "Ascham" should be made about seven feet high i.e. in the "clear" within. About thirty inches from the base upwards, it is made broader outwards, for the pur­pose of receiving a rack with holes pierced and fixed horizontally, to hold a few dozen arrows, as may be convenient; over this broader part is a flap, which covers the arrows, and from which upwards the door of the "Ascham" is placed. The bows are arranged at the back, having a free space between them and the racks of a few inches, and may be held in their places by small straps of leather, on brass knobs.
104 This practice of the Turks, presuming that it was founded upon experience, seems as to the philosophy of the matter, in direct variance with the fact recorded in the former part of this book, under the subject of “Heads or piles of arrows," viz. that, some blunt headed arrows, in an experiment made between such and some sharp headed ones, always flew the furthest.