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Plate LX
Arrows With Stops, Retrieving Barbs, or Compound Pile

FIG. 1. Made of pine wood; the shaft, head, and point cut out of one piece. Feathers, three, 4 1/4 inches long, laid on flat in the following manner: The three feathers were first attached to the butt of the arrow by a coiled wrapping of sinew, their other extremities pointed backward; then they were doubled backward and the ends seized with sinew. This makes a very secure fastening for the feather. The coiled wrapping is continued over the nock and fastened off in the notch. Nock, flat; notch, U-shaped. The head, bulbous. The point is cut out of this by whittling away the wood so as to leave a long projection like a nail or spike. Total length, 31 1/2 inches.

Cat. No. 90123, U. S. N. M. Eskimo, Ungava. Collected by L. M. Turner.

FIG. 2. Very rudely made. Shaft, of spruce. Shaftment, flat. Feathers, two, laid on flat, seized with sinew. The nock is flat and the notch angular. Head, a common cut nail, driven into the end of the shaft and seized with sinew. At the inner part of this, seizing a piece of nail is lashed on crosswise so as to prevent the arrow going more than two inches into the body of the the game. Total length of shaft, 25 inches.

Cat. No. 90138, U. S. N. M. Whale River, Hudson Bay. Collected by Lucien Turner.

FIG. 3. THE SHAFT, of osier. There is no feather. The nock is tightly seized with sinew cord; notch, U-shaped. The peculiarity of this arrow is that the point, of iron or bone, is lashed to the beveled end of the shaft and the tang is projected backwards into a long barb. This arrow is used in shooting prairie dogs. It is said that the Navahoe uses now a little bit of mirror with which to throw the sunlight into the eyes of the prairie dog until he can get near enough to drive one of these arrows into his body. Upon the least alarm or injury the creatures dive into their holes and this arrow enables the hunter, if he strikes one of them, to retrieve his game. The action of this arrow is very similar to that of the vermin hook used by the Ute Indians, and also to those of the northwest coast. Total length of shaft, 33 inches (32 1/2 inches).

Cat. No. 126740, IT. S. N. M. Navahoe Indians. Collected by Thomas Keam.

FIG. 4. THE SHAFT is of spruce wood, ornamented here and there with band of red paint, cylindrical. Shaftment, flat. Feathers, three, seized at their ends with twisted sinew thread. One feather is in the middle of one of the flat sides; the other two feathers are at the round corners of the other side. The flat nock flares a little upward, and the notch is angular. This is a bident or double-pointed arrow, having two barbs of bone inserted into the end of the shaft, so as to give them a spread of three-fourths of an inch at their points, one of which is a little longer than the other. They are held to the shaft by a wrapping of sinew cord. The barbs face inward. Total length of shaft, 26 inches.

Cat. No. 76705, U.S. N.M. Eskimo, Bristol Bay; Fort Alexandra, Alaska. Collected by J. W. Johnson.

FIG. 5. SHAFT, of spruce, painted red. Feathers, three, roughly seized with sinew. Nock, flat; notch, U-shaped. The three barbs of the trident are inserted in the end of the shaft so as to be about an inch apart at the outer point. The barbs, of bone, are serrated on the inside. They are held in place by a wrapping of sinew cord at their lower extremities, a curious braid of the same cord attaching them to the tip of the shaft and holding them in place. Length of shaft, 35 inches.

Cat. No. 72413, U. S. N. M. Southern Alaska. Collected by Charles McKay.

FIG. 6. SHAFT, of spruce wood. The lower end has been broken off. The upper portion of this weapon deserves especial study. A little band of ivory, fitted over the shaft, 1 1/2 inches from the upper end. Precisely similar bands are frequently labeled ornaments. Into the extremity of the shaft is inserted a delicate point of walrus ivory, triangular in cross section. Two of the edges are finely barbed. Three larger barbs, also triangular in section, have their lower ends driven into the shaft under the ivory band, and the edges lie along in grooves extending to the end of the shaft. The barbs of these three points are on the inside. Just at the end of the shaft each of these outer barbs is perforated, and sinew thread attaches them together and also to the central barb, and is also wrapped around the bases of these barbs just above the ivory band. Length of outer barbs, 6 inches.

This arrow represents a type Cat. No. 48342, U. S. N. M. Nunivak Island. Collected by E. W. Nelson.

Plate LX