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Arrows of Northern California and Oregon

FIG. 1. SHAFT, beautifully smoothed. Shaftment painted deep red. Feathers, three, o glued on, and delicately seized at either end with sinew. The ends of the feathers project at least an inch beyond the notch. The nock is cylindrical ; notch, U-shaped. Head, of obsidian, leaf-shaped, with notches near the base, let into a notch at the end of the shaft, seized with sinew and transparent glue. Total length of shaft, 31 1/2 inches.

Cat. No. 2807, U. S. N. M. Oregon Indians. Collected by Lieut. Wilkes, U. S. Navy.

FIG. 2. SHAFT, of rhus. Shaftment, striped with black, red, and brown. Feathers, seized at the end with sinew, standing off from the shaftment, and shorn quite close to the midrib. Nock, cylindrical; notch, U-shaped. Foreshaft, of hard wood, painted red, sharpened, inserted into the end of the shaft, and seized with sinew. Head, an extremely delicate point of obsidian, triangular, inserted into a notch in the end of the shaft, and seized with sinew diagonally laid on notches on the sides of the arrowhead. Total length of shaft, 30 inches.

Cat. No. 15127, U. S. N. M. Northern California. Collected by Wm. Rich.

FIG. 3. SHAFT, a slender twig of rhus, striped with red and blue at its upper extremity. The shaftment is ornamented with zigzag lines in the same colors. Feathers, three, glued to the shaftment and seized at either end with sinew. Nock, cylindrical; notch, very slight. Head, of obsidian, slender, sagittate in form; the tang inserted in a slit at the extremity of the shaft and seized with sinew. This shaft has a barb of very narrow regular grooves around the upper extremity, as though produced by a lathe. This feature is common to many California arrows. Total length of shaft, 29 inches.

Cat. No. 126517, U. S. N. M. Hupa Indians, California. Collected by Capt. P. H. Ray, U. S. Army.

FIG. 4. SHAFT, a rod. Shaftment, striped with green. Feathers, three, seized at the ends with sinew and laid flat on the shaftment. Nock, cylindrical; notch, U-shaped. Head, of gray chert, long, and delicately inserted in the end of the shaft by a seizing which passes around the deep notches at the sides. Total length, 34 inches. The shafts of the California arrows are of wild currant, rhus, willow, and other straight twig-like stalks.

Cat. No. 131110, U. S. N. M. Pitt Indians, California. Collected by N. J. Purcell.

FIG. 5. SHAFT, a rod; striped with narrow bands of blue and red and the natural color of the wood. Feathers, three, neatly shorn, seized with sinew and glued fast to the shaftment. The sinew is colored with a red paint resembling shellac. Nock, cylindrical; notch, shallow. Foreshaft, of hard wood, painted blue, inserted in the end of the shaft and seized with sinew. In many of the California arrows the foreshafts have been revolved between two coarse pieces of sandstone, or by means of a file cut so as to give the appearance of being neatly seized with very fine thread. It also confers a suspicion of machinery on some of these later examples. The head is of jasper, triangular, delicate, tapering, deeply notched on the side, and held in place by a diagonal lashing of sinew. Other specimens from the same quiver have heads of chalcedony, the edges of which are beautifully ser rated. Total length, 31 inches.

Cat. No. 126517, U. S. N. M. Hupa Indians, California. Collected by V. H. Ray.

FIG. 6. This figure shows the variety of arrow points in use among the Indians of Upper California. Glass, obsidian, steel, iron points, and wooden foreshaft sharpened, together with others in the same plate, give an understanding of the various ways of attaching the arrowhead to the shaft and fore-shaft.