This plate shows the tools of the arrow-maker.
FIG. 1. SHAFT STRAIGHTENER. The example figured is from the Hupa (Athapascan) tribe of California. It is a piece of yew ten inches long, spindle-shaped and having an oblong hole through the middle. The arrow shaft is drawn through the hole and straightened by pressure on the ends of the tool.
FIG. 2. THE GLUE STICK, which is simply a bit of wood having one end covered with glue, used like a tinner's soldering iron.
FIGS. 3 and 4. ARROWHEAD CHIPPERS. Showing the primitive method of joining the working parts to the handle. One point is a bit of bone, the other a rod of soft iron, which in this example replaces one of bone or antler.
FIG. 5. THE PITCHING tool. A column of antler used like a cold chisel in knocking off spalls or flakes or blades by means of some kind of hammer.
FIGS. 6 and 7. RASPING and POLISHING STONES. All the American tribes used coarse sandstone for wood rasps, and in the making of arrow shafts cut grooves in the rasp to give rotundity to the wood. The polishing was done with finer sandstone, shagreen, siliceous grass, etc.
FIG. 8. GLUE SHELL. An implement made of muscle shell worn over the finger and employed in smoothing down glue and sinew on bows and arrows.
FIG. 9. SAW. In this example an old case knife blade, hacked on the edge. In primitive times wood saws were made of chipped siliceous stone.