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Notes Chapter 11
133. See Hiftory of the Norman Kings.
134. Numidias & Cretas, fagittarios, & funditores Baleares, fubfidio oppidanis mittit.
B. H. Ch. 8. See alfo Ch. 11 and 19.
Dion Caffius.—Nero, pg. 706, C.
136. See Hume’s Hift. Vol. I. pg. 13.
137. Vol. I. pg. 120. See alfo pgs. 156, 389, - and Vol. II. 115. Offian is fuppofed to have lived about three centuries after Caefar.
138. Regem etiam ejufdem provinciae (Eftangliae) fanctiffimum Edmundum captum per eofdem, & ad quendam ftipitem alligatum, tanquam lignum ad fagittam, barbari, crudeliffimi telis fuis, & fagittis aggreffi funt, horrendaque crudelitate perfodientes, pro fide Chrifti, &c.

Ingulphi Hift. pg. 494.
Anglic Rer. Script. Poft. Bedam.

139. Porro Chriftiani pro paucitate fua in unum con-cum conglubati, contra fagittarioum (Danorum) impetum duriffimam teftudinem clypeorum—praetendbant.

Cumque fic invicti—ac adverfariorum fagittarii tela fua in vacuum perdidiffent.

Ann. 870Chron. J. Abbatis,
St. Pet. de Bergo, Pg. 17.

140. " Contigit autem die quodam, ut ruftica, uxor, videlicet illius vaccari, pararet ad coquendum panes. Et ille rex fedens fic circa focum praeparavit fibi arcum & fagittas, & alia bellicorum injfrumenta. Cum vero panes ad ignem pofitos ardentes afpexit ilia infaelix mulier, feftinanter currit, & amovit eos, increpans regem invictiffimum et dicens: Heus homo:"

"Urere quos cernis panes, gyrare moraris,
" Cum nimium guades hos manducare calentes ?"

Affer. AElfredi rebus jeftis, pg. 9.
141. —in dextro vero cornu, alterna parte equitum cum bene magno fagittariorum numero, et peditum ftore locavit ubi ipfe (Ethelred) erat.
Polyd. Verg, Hift, Angl. pg. 98—6.
142. Ipfe (Willielmus) ufum longorum arcuum & fagittarum in Angliam primus inducbat, cum eis Angliam conqueftione vincens.
Chron. J. Roffi, pg. 109.
143. Vol. 6. Pg. 392.
144. Thefe are his words:—In Hibernicis autem conflictibus & hoc fummoperè curandum, ut femper fagit­tarii militaribus turmis mixtim adjiciantur; quatenus & lapidum (quorum ictibus graves & armatos cominus appetere folent, et indemnes agilitatis beneficio, ore-bris accedere vicibus et abfcedere) e diverfo eminus fagittis injuria propulfetur,"

The curious paffage from which the above cir-cumftances are taken, ftands thus in the original:
" Hoc autem mihi notabile videtur, quod gens haec, quae Venta gens vocatur, et Maniis conflictibus ufitatiftima, & ftrenuitatis opera laudatiffima, & arte fa-gittandi prae ceteris Cambriae finibus inftructiffima re-peritur. Ad hujus autem affertionis ultimae certitudi-nem exempla proponere non pigeat. In extrema Caftri praedicti expugnatione noftris diebus perpetrata, militibus duobus in turrim cumulato terrarum aggere fitam per pontem transfugientibus, Wallenfes ut ipfos a tergo percuterent, fagittas arcu mittentes portam turris iliceam, palmaris fere fpiffitudinis tranfpenetrarunt, ad tantorum ictum vehementiae perpetuam memoriam fagittis in porta ferro repercuffo refervatis. Accidit & tempore Gulielmi de Breufa (ipfo teftante) quendam militern fuum it conflictu contra Wallenfes a quodam ipforum per mediam coxam cum panno loricae ocriali ferro utrinque veftitam fagitta percuffam effe, eadem quoque fagitta per partem illam fellae, quae alva vocatur, ufque ad ipfum equum lethaliter tranfpenetrante. Alia quoque fagitta militis alterius coxam ferro fimiliter utrinque munitam cum panno loricae ufque in fellam perforavit. El cum miles ille locis equum in, gyrum flecteret : alio fagittam eodem contorquente, in oppofita coxa fimilem ictum fufcepit, equo ab utraque parte firmiter affixus."
Itinerar. Cambriae. Gir. Camb. Pg. 835—20.

146. I have not mentioned the death of William II. as it is uncertain whether the Long-bow or Arbaleft difcharged the Arrow which proved fatal to him.
147. — " innumera laxarunt caede pharetras."
148. Hollinfhead, Chron. Vol. III. pg. 473
149. Stow, pg. 316.

As a contraft to this barbarous, though energetic paffage, I will quote the defcription of a furious Arrow, from Lucan.
" Haud unum contenta latus tranfire, quiefcit:
" Sed pandens perque arma viam, perque offa, relicta
" Morte, fugit: fupereft telo poft volnera curfas."
Pharfalia, Lib, 3.

151. It is faid, that James I, of Scotland, during his long confinement in England, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, was fo ftruck with the fpirit and gallantly of the Englifh Archers, that on returning to his own country, he eftablifhed Royal Companies of Bowmen in different parts of his dominions. The art of fhooting with the Bow, is at prefent regularly practifed, by numerous Societies; and the Pepingoe is annually celebrated at Kilwinning, in the' weft of Scotland, by the gentlemen of the neighbourhood. The Pepingoe (or Popingay, a mark formed like a parrot) is projected two or three feet from the top of the church fteeple, and they fhoot at it perpendicularly, refting their kit foot on the bafe of the tower. The Royal Company of Archers, at Edinburgh, confifts of the principal nobility and gentry of that kingdom, to the number of eight or nine hundred members. Maitland, in his hiftory of Edinburgh, informs us, that this Society was founded about the year 1676; and that it was erected into a corporation by Letters Patent From Queen Anne, dated the 31ft of December, 1713. As the articles by which the Society is regulated are too long to be inferted in this place, I fhall extract the whole account from Maitland's hiftory, in the Appendix ; to which I refer the reader. If we may judge from the compliments of a Poet, this Society feems to have flourifhed with great fpirit in the beginning of the prefent century. I allude to Allan Ramfay's works among which there are feveral poems addreffed to the Archers of Edinburgh, and which celebrate their fkill. Among others, the Duke of Hamilton revives a few lines on his having fhot an Eel in the neck.
152. Mr. B. refers to that Prince's manufcript journal, in the Britifh Museum.

Of thefe Societies, I believe the following are the principal: viz.

The Hon. Artil. Comp.
Royal Edinburgh
Woodmen of Arden
Royal Kentifh Bowmen
Royal Britifh Bowmen
Robin Hood Bowmen
Loyal Archers
Yorkfhire Archers
Hainhault Forefters
Southampton Archers
Bowmen of Chiviot Chafe
Kentifh Rangers
Woodmen of Hornfey
Surry Bowmen
Bowmen of the Border
Mercian Bowmen
Broughton Archers
Staffordfhire Bowmen
Trent Archers
154. P. Daniel, Vol. I. Pg. 427.
155. See Grofe's Hift. of Army, Vol. I..
156. " Si quis ludo fagittandi, vel alicujus exercitii ja­culo, vel hujufmodi cafu aliquem occidat, reddat cum."
Laws of Henry I. Ch. 88. Camb. 1644. Fol.

Spiritual men feem to have been as fond of Archery formerly as any other perfons. Afcham teaches us, that the bifhops practifed Archery in his time, and we find the following account of a bifhop fhooting at Utrecht.

" L'Evêque leur montroit exemple, & aprés avoir fanctifié la fete par une proceffion, il fe mèloit parmi les tireurs, & devenoit Roi de l'Arc, faifant voir qu'il les furpaffoit autant en adreffe qu'en dignitè.
Bib. Univerfelle.

Another curious paffage from Bifhop Latimer's fixth fermon, will fhew how great an advocate for Archery he was, even in the pulpit. The Reformer preached the fermon before the King; and after condemning the vices of the age, he thus introduces the fubject. of Archery:—"The arte of fhutynge hath ben in tymes paft much eftemed in this realme, it is a gyft of God, that he hath geven us to excell all other nacions wythall. It hath bene Goddes inftrumente, whereby he hath gyven us manye victories agaynfte oure ene-myes. But nowe we have taken up horynge in townes, inftcede of fhutynge in the fyeldes. A wonderous thynge, that fo excelente a gyft of God fhoulde be fo lyttle efleemed. I defire you, my Lordes, even as you love honours, and glorye of God, and intende to remove his indignacion, let there be fent fourth fome proclimacion, fome fharpe proclimacion, to the Juftices of Peace, for they do not thyr dutye. Juftices now be no Juftices; ther be many good actes made for thys matter already. Charge them upon their allegiance, that thys fingular benefit of God may be practifed; and that it be not turned into bollyng, and gloffyng, and horing, wythin the townes; for they be negligente in execu-tying thefe lawes of fhutynge. In my tyme, my poore father was as diligent to teach me to ftiute , as to learne any other thynge ; and fo I thinke other menne dyd thyr children. He taught me howe to drawe, howe to lay my bodye in my Bowe, and not to drawe wyth ftrength of armes, as other nacions do, but wyth ftrength of bodye. I had my Bowes bought me according to my age and ftrength, as I encreafed in them; fo my Bowes were made bigger and bigger: for men fhall never fhute well, excepte they be brought up in it. It is a goodly arte, a holefome kynde of exercife, and much commended in phifike. Marcilius Sicinus, in hys boke de triplici vita (it is a greate while fins I red hym nowe); but I remember he commendeth thys kinde of exercife, and fayth, that it wreftleth agaynfte manye kyndes of difeafes. In the reverence of God, let it be continued. Let a proclamacion go forth, charging the Juftices of Peace, that they fee fuch actes and ftatutes kept, as were made for thys purpofe."
Latimer's Sermons, Black Letter, 1549, 12th

158. This was copied from the Roman Law, both by Henry I. and Henry VIII.
159. Hollinfhead, Chron. Vol. I.—198.
160. See Hift. Roman Empire, Vol. IV, Pg 199.4to Edit.
161. Si quis alteram de fagitta toxicata percutere voluerit, &c.
162. Si fecundum digitum quo fagittatur, excufferit, &c.
163. Daniel, Pg. 24. Vol. I.
164. Quod nullus in hofte baculum habeat fed arcum
Capit. Rig. Franc—Baluzius, Pg. 510.
165. Daniel, Vol. I. Pg. 252.
166. See Mem. P. de Comines, B. 8. Ch. 6.
167. Daniel, Vol. I.—427
168. Daniel, Vol. I. 426.
169. Mr. Grofe informs us, an Archer could formerly fhoot fix Arrows in the time neceffary to charge and difcharge a mufket. And I have heard a gentleman fay, he himfelf could fhoot twelve Arrows into a circle not larger than the circumference of a man's hat, at the diftance of forty yards, in a minute.
170. We may remark, that at the victory of Crecy, no part of the honour or advantage is attributed to the artillery ufed by Edward.
171. Virgil thus defcribes a wounded horfe—
——ferrumque fub aure reliquit,
Quo fonipes ictu furit arduus, altaque jactat
Vulneris impatiens, arrecto pectore crura:
Volvitur ille excuffus humi.
Lib. 11, —637.
172. In ancient battles, when myriads of Archers were introduced, the appearance of a difcharge of Arrows from the whole army, muft have been inconceivably awful. How frequently do we meet with fuch expreffions as thefe—exclucere diem telis —grandine ferri— &c. There is a well known reply of Dioneces, to a perfon who informed him at the battle of Thermo-pylae, that the Perfian army was fo numerous, as to obfcure the light of the fun with their Arrows, " we fhall then fight in the fhade, faid he, and not expofed to the heat."
Herod,—pg. 522

We may judge alfo, of the immenfe number of Arrows expended in an engagement, from a circumftance mentioned in the Anabafis of Zenophon. The troops under the command of Clearcus, who were divided from the other part of the army, in that battle which proved fatal to Cyrus, having loft their pro-vifions, by the enemy plundering their camp, were obliged to kill the oxen and affes which drew the baggage waggons. Thefe animals they roafted by fires made of the Perfian Arrows, and arms, which they found in prodigious numbers on the field of battle, near to the place where the camp lay.
Zenoph.—pg. 275. A.

173. Zenophon Cyrop.—pg. 167. C—and 226. E.
174. Leo's Tactics.—pg. 93.
175. Il. Lib. 13. L. 714. The Locrian Archers had not fword, fhield, or javelin.

See alfo Procopius, pg. 6.—Fol. Paris.


See Polybius, Lib. 13,

Euripides puts the following words in difpraife of the Bow, into the mouth of Lycus, who he repre-fents flighting the feats of Hercules.

——" He, with no merit, held
" The fame of daring courage, that with beafts
" He fought, in nought befides his prowefs prov'd:
" His left hand never knew to raife the fhield,
" Never advanc'd he nigh the fpear, but held
" The Bow, a coward's weapon, and to flight
" Was always prompt; no proof of manhood, none
" Of daring courage is the Bow,"————

Amphitryon then makes anfwer:—

"—— The man array'd in arms
" Is to his arms a flave, and ftationed nigh
" Weak hearted daftards, through their cowardife
" He perifhes; or fhould he break his fpear,
" What hath he to protect him from the carnage,
" His valour thus difarm'd? But he that grafps
" The fkilful-aiming Bow, hath in his hand
" One thing which much avails him, whence he fends
" A thoufand Arrows 'gainft the breaft of others,
" Himfelf from death defending ; and, his ftand
" Held diftant, pours his vengeance on his foes,
" Who fall by unfeen wounds, himfelf fecure,
" Nor to their arms expofed: for in the fight
" This is the work of wifdom to annoy
" The enemies, fecure from their attack.
Hercules, Act I.

I have copied the tranflation of Potter.


The Archers furnifhed with fwords and targets, when they approached the lines of the enemy, flung their Bows behind them, and drew their fwords. The Sarmatians (according to Tacitus) {hot their Arrows as they advanced, and preffed their horfes rapidly, till they came near enough to engage with their other weapons, at which time they threw the Bow afide. " Sarmatae omiffo arcu, quo brevius valent contis gladiifque ruerent: modo equeftris praelii more, frontis et tergi vices."

Tacitus, Annul, Lib. 6.―35.
178. Archers were drawn from the yeomanry, and feemed to have ferved on foot, as attendants on the vaffals who held by knight's fervice, and at their charge; or, fometimes, under the pay, and at the charge of the King."
Littleton's Henry II. Vol. III. pg. 90.
179. See Lyttleton's Hiftory Henry II. Vol. III. pg. 220.
180. If the Reader wifh to fee an account of this fuperb affair, he will find it defcribed in Robertfon's Charles V. Vol. II.
181. See the Frontifpiece.

The force of Arrows is well inftanced by a fact recorded in the Journal of Edward VI. which Mr. Grofe quotes from Burnett's Hiftory of the Reformation. An hundred Archers belonging to the King's guard fhot at an inch board, fingly, two Arrows each, and afterwards all together. Some of thefe Arrows pierced through this, and into another board placed behind it, although the wood was extremely folid and firm.

An ancient Bow, fays P. Daniel, Vol. II. 606, would carry further than a Fufil, and to the diftance of 600 paces. If he means common military paces, each of which may confift of two feet, or rather more, the diftance of the range may be fet down as full 400 yards.

183. Sheffer’s Hiftory of Lapland

" M. Antoninus adverfus Parthos, qui infinita multitudine fagittarum exercitum ejus obrucbat, fubfidere fuos, & teftudinem facere juffit, fupra quam tranfmiffis fagittas fine militum noxa exhauftus eft hoftis."
Frontini Stratagemata, pg. 159.

According to the difpofition of the Macedonian Phalanx, the men were drawn up in columns fixteen deep. Polybius tells us, that the five foremofl ranks only, prefented their fpears, of fourteen cubits in length, to the front; while the remainder of thofe in the rear, inclining their pikes a little, over the (boulders of the ranks before them, defended the men beneath from the miffive weapons of the enemy.
See Polybius, Lib, 17, pg. 26.

185. See the Quotation from J. de Burgo. pg.215.
186.Tunc praecedebat cum Parma Garcio**, fub qua.
Nil fibi formidans obffefos damnificabat.
Affidue poterat nec ab illis damnificari
Afferibus latis dum Parma protegit ipfum.

**Garcio, is an old word for a boy,—Garcon in French : thefe fhields were carried about by boys. Sec P. Daniel, Vol. I. pg. 554.

187. ** Grofe, Vol. I. 149.

We find alfo the following paffage in P. Jovius, refpecting the ancient Englifh Archery :—"Apud Anglos in fagittis unica fpes et praecipua gloria, crebris victoriarum proventibus, parta eft. Eas minimo digito craffiores, bicubitalefque, et hamato praefixas ferro, ingentibus ligneis arcubus intorquent: tanta vi arteque, ut ad primos praefertim ictus, fquamofum thoracem aut loricam facile penetrent. His è Romana difciplina mos eft, vallum geftare, et dimenfo fpatio protinus, ubi hoftis fuerit in confpectu, in orbem fe munire. Palos enim teretes utrinque ferrea cufpide praeacutos in hoftem vertunt. In medio autem eft ferreus annulus, quo perpetua faepe refte vinciuntur. Circumvallati in hunc modum, loevo pede in ima parte palum premunt; et divaricatis cruribus, panfifque lacertis, fagittas ex- cutiunt. Interna autem finiftri brachii offea tabella contegunt, ne manicae rugis recurrentis nervi impetus elidatur.

P. Jov. Brytan. Defcript. Pg. 21.
Inter Balei Script. Ang.

188. Strutt, Vol. II.
189. The effect produced on the eye by a number of Arrows paffing through the air from one army to another, is a circumftance which, by no Poet who has fung of war, could be paffed unnoticed. One might fill pages from every language with beautiful allufions to this fubject.

The appearance of an Arrow on the wing, viewed on the fide, is Angularly interefting. Its fteady movement—the curve it defcribes—its afcending and defending motion—its velocity, &c. are all fources of beauty which never fail to excite agreeable feelings in the mind, and even lead us to attribute active powers, for a moment, to the fhaft. Weaknefs and ftrength are well expreffed by the Arrow which arrives fhort, or which paffes far over the Target; and the different degrees of fwiftnefs perceptible in Arrows, from Bows of various powers, immediately affociate the ideas of bodily vigour and energy, in various degrees of ftrength. This is not fantaflic—it is thus we feel pleafure from the objects in nature which furround us. Vegetables fpeak the language of the paffions well. Does not the ftorm make every hedge enraged; and have we not the weeping willows? We give thefe mental affections.

190. Intendunt acres arcus, amentaque torquent. Sternitur omne folum telis, turn fcuta cavaeque Dant fonitum flictu galeae ; pugna afpera furgit.
191. See an account of the wound Zifca received by an Arrow, in Gilpin's Lives of the Reformers, Pg. 306.
192. —" Sub caudis qua maxime molli cute vulnera accipiunt, fodiebant," —
Vegetius Pg. 326.
193. Among the amufements in which the Bow has borne a part, we fhall find none more extraordinary than the following; an account of which is recorded in Plot's Hiftory of Staffordfhire:—

" At Abbots, or now rather Pagets Bromley, they had alfo within memory, a fort of fport, which they celebrated at Chriftmas, (in New-year, or Twelfth-day,) call'd The Hobby-horfe Dance, from a perfon that carried the image of an Horfe between his legs, made of thin boards, and in his hand a Bow and Arrow, which paffing through a hole in the Bow, and ftopping upon a fholder it had in it, he made a fnapping noife as he drew it to and fro', keeping time with the mufic: with this man danced fix others, carrying on their fhoulders as many Rein-deer's heads, three of them painted white, and three red, with the Arms of the chief families (viz. of Paget, Bagor and Wells.) to whom the revenues of the town chiefly belonged, depicted on the palms of them, with which they danced the Hays, and other Country Dances, To this Hobby-horfe Dance, there alfo belonged a pot, which was kept by turns, by four or five of the chief of the town, whom they called Reeves, who provided cakes and ale to put in this pot: all people who had any kindnefs for the good intent of the inftitution of the fport, giving hence a piece for themfelves and families; and fo foraigners too, that came to fee it:: with which money, (the charge of the cakes and ale being defrayed.) they not only repaired their Church, but kept their Poor too : which charges are not now perhaps fo cheerfully borne,"
Plot's Hiftory of Staffordfhire, pg. 430.

194. Xerxes opum Regiarum oftentatione eximia, eo ufque luxuria gaudebat, ut edicto praemium qui proponent qui novum voluptatis genus reperiffet."

Val. Max. L. 9. Ch.11.
See alfo Briffonius de reg. Pers. 148.

195. It is a reproach to be unfkilful with the Bow.