Comparative penetration of steel and obsidian heads
To ascertain which type of arrow is most effective in entering animal tissue, I constructed a box 12 by 12 inches square and 4 inches deep, having open sides. On these sides I tacked tanned deer hide, hair side out. The interior of this box was filled with a bovine liver. Thus we had a structure simulating an animal's flank, hair, and skin externally, with homogenous dense tissue internally, which could be utilized to measure the comparative penetration of arrows with some degree of accuracy. Shooting a 35-pound bow at a distance of 10 yards, the selected arrows penetrated as follows (pl. 13):
No. 5, conical point, entered 4 inches, or to the second hide.
No. 6, small bodkin, penetrated 12 inches.
No. 8, obsidian point, penetrated 28 inches.
No. 9, a trifle broader obsidian point, penetrated 30 inches.
This experiment was repeated with the same result.
An obsidian point similar to No. 8 penetrated first hide and 4 inches of liver, and broke on the second hide, abruptly stopping with 4 inches penetrated.
No. 12, Ishi steelhead, 2 trials, 21 inches and 18 inches.
No. 00, Ishi steelhead, similar to above, but made extra sharp by filing, penetrated 22 inches.
No. 13, deer arrow, penetrated 14 inches.