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Comparative penetration of steel and obsidian heads

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To ascertain which type of arrow is most effective in entering animal tissue, I constructed a box 12 by 12 inches square and 4 inches deep, having open sides. On these sides I tacked tanned deer hide, hair side out. The interior of this box was filled with a bovine liver. Thus we had a structure simulating an animal's flank, hair, and skin externally, with homogenous dense tissue internally, which could be utilized to measure the comparative pene­tration of arrows with some degree of accuracy. Shoot­ing a 35-pound bow at a distance of 10 yards, the selected arrows penetrated as follows (pl. 13):

Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 did not penetrate the first hide, but bounced off.
No. 5, conical point, entered 4 inches, or to the second hide.
No. 6, small bodkin, penetrated 12 inches.
No. 8, obsidian point, penetrated 28 inches.
No. 9, a trifle broader obsidian point, penetrated 30 inches.

This experiment was repeated with the same result.
An obsidian point similar to No. 8 penetrated first hide and 4 inches of liver, and broke on the second hide, abruptly stop­ping with 4 inches penetrated.

No. 11, squirrel, penetrated 4 inches.
No. 12, Ishi steelhead, 2 trials, 21 inches and 18 inches.
No. 00, Ishi steelhead, similar to above, but made extra sharp by filing, penetrated 22 inches.
No. 13, deer arrow, penetrated 14 inches.