Different arrowheads and their penetration
The character of the head on an arrow must also influence its penetration. For tests from this standpoint, a series of arrows with different shaped heads was employed. These are shown in plate 13, and may be described as follows:
No. 1, a 28-inch arrow, 5/16 of an inch in diameter, made of ash; weight, 1 ounce; feathered with standard hunting type of feathers; blunt point; used principally in the paraffin penetration test.
No. 2, a blunt hunting arrow, ⅜ of an inch in diameter, 28 inches in length; a 1¼ inch round headed screw for point; bound with soldered iron wire. A very useful and durable arrow for killing small game.
No. 3, a blunt hunting arrow, 28 inches long, 11/32 inch in diameter, hickory ; weight, 1⅓ ounces; feathered heavily with balloon-shaped feathers; empty 38 caliber pistol shell for pile.
No. 4, a standard English target arrow; 5/16 inch diameter; snakewood footing spliced on end ; stele of red pine; small balloon target feathers; weight, 5 shillings, or approximately 436 grains.
No. 5, target or roving arrow. Birch dowel, inch diameter; 28 inches long; aluminum nock; small balloon feathers; weight, 1 ounce; conical point, made of a U. S. army Springfield 30 caliber bullet jacket.
No. 6, small bodkin hunting arrow; 5/16 inch diameter; birch dowel; 29 inches long, shaft feathered by Ishi in typical shape; weight, 1¼ ounces; point made of tapered square spike set in a piece of brass tubing. Is copy of small Greek bodkin.
No. 7, heavy bodkin point; shaft has ⅜ inch diameter; 28 inches long; heavy hunting type of feathers; point is a very heavy tempered steel reamer set in steel tubing of ⅜ inch diameter by a shank and rivet. This is almost an exact copy of the old English war bodkin point taken from the drawings made by Hastings. The entire weight of this arrow is 2½ ounces, and it represents the most formidable missile in the group under consideration. The bodkin point was devised to penetrate steel armor, and in England it supplanted the broadhead after protective devices came into general use. Such a heavy shaft can be shot only from the most powerful bows.